Concept Sourcebook A Vocabulary Of Architectural Forms
These books describe the process and techniques of visualizing architectural predesign and design information in the dual sense of converting that information into graphic images and of seeing or understanding the information better. The central thesis is that our ability to draw needs, requirements, and early design concepts is just as important as our ability to draw final building design solutions and that, in fact, our diagramming skills profoundly influence the quality of our building designs.
Concept Sourcebook A Vocabulary Of Architectural Forms
Architecture students seem to graduate with a relatively small vocabulary of architectural forms for responding to project needs. This is not because the forms are unavailable but because students have had little experience and because current methods for acquiring them are very inefficient. As a result, some professional designers handle different projects with similar building forms that have become comfortable and familiar. This book presents a theory of concepts and concept formation based on a vocabulary for five categories of design: Functional Grouping and Zoning, Architectural Space, Circulation and the Building Form, Response to Context, and Building Envelope. As a whole, they are meant as a catalyst for project concept formation. 1975. Paper, 9" x 7", 200 pages. $24.95
However, the most ambitious, so-called idea-generating design competition (ujjaepftesi otletpalyazat) organized in 1945 called for master concepts that would radically reimagine the structural foundations of the entire city, not just offer practical blueprints for the reconstruction of war damage. Many of the entries were lost, but the surviving documentation, which includes the summary assessment of the jury, reveals that, overall, the entries were quite eclectic. Some contenders simply ignored the architectural nature of the competition and submitted philosophical or moral treatises or, in one case, a poem (Vadas 1985). Even some of the more strictly architectural entries were at times not simply daring but phantasmagoric, like the one that recommended clearing away the entire Castle Hill. Yet the two competition entries that were awarded a divided first place and given broad press coverage were architecturally sophisticated, bold, constructivist-inspired plans for radically restructuring the city.
Zalotay's strip house idea was celebrated because it finally offered a "future-oriented and revolutionary" alternative. His concept was described as a "'discoverylike' radical resolution of the housing question once and for all" (Tarkanyi 1965:75). Zalotay was portrayed as somebody aspiring to live up to the real challenge of progressive architecture: "the construction of housing forms and settlements that actively shape the way life is conducted in the new society as well as in the new dwelling" (Joob  1981:270). "The scale of Zalotay's strip house is so immense that its quantitative dimensions beget a qualitative change" (Joob  1981:270; see also Ferenczy 1963 and Simmel 1990). They also pointed to the gaping discrepancy in degree of sophistication between contemporary material objects, exemplified by the car or the television, and outmoded dwelling forms, especially the family house (Ferenczy 1963:72).
In 1486, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola had completed seven years of classical education at various universities in Europe. He independently came up with the idea to formulate a universal religion comprising the essential elements of the existing major religions. He put together some of his ideas in nine hundred theses on a wide variety of topics that he wanted to dispute with other scholars in Rome, but the debate did not occurbecause the Church claimed that some of his propositions were heretical, and Pico della Mirandola had to flee to France for safety. The opening oration to the theses, which came to be known as Oration on the Dignity of Man (published posthumously in 1496), describes man as not being constrained by the laws of nature, such that man, through free will, may determine his own limits and nature. Further, it places mankind at the center of the universe; Pico della Mirandola says that "nothing in the world can be found that is more worthy of admiration than man." The opening oration has been called the manifesto of Humanism. Although Pico della Mirandola was not a true humanist, since he held on to the Aristotelian concept of forms, a scholastic ideology, his work galvanized humanist thinking in the way that it pulled together the best of Jewish, Christian, Zoroastrian, and Arabic philosophies, expressing the intellectual freedom and dignity of humankind.
As the humanists discovered neglected or lost classical manuscripts and distributed them through printing, they developed a discerningtaste for those classical writers who expressed their thoughts in the most elegant forms of Latin. They also discovered errors in transcription as they compared different versions of the same text. Philology, the love or study of language, grew out of the humanist desire to perfect their translations of ancient texts and to write textual commentaries on their newly discovered texts. Writing in Latin themselves, they sought to express themselves in the most elegant forms of this language. Thus, ancient Roman writers such as Cicero and Caesar became models of Latin prose, replacing the medieval Latin of scholastic Latin grammars. In many ways, philology lies at the heart of the humanist movement, since it engendered a focus on the historical context in which ancient texts were written as well as on textual criticism. In fact, the early humanists invented the concept of textual criticism. Philology is central to historical study because it is a valid means of authenticating records of historical events and thinking.
Kant's explanation was that objects of scientific investigation are not simply discovered in the world but are constituted and synthesized a priori in the human mind. The external world that human beings experience is not a copy of reality, but something that can only be experienced and understood in light of a priori forms and categories. According to Kant, these forms and categories determine the form but not the content of external reality. Causation is a product of the mind and is a necessary precondition for the conception of an orderly universe. 350c69d7ab