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Embedded Systems Fundamentals With ARM CortexM Based Microcontrollers A Practical Approach 87

Microcontrollers are embedded into larger systems to provide benefits such as better performance, more features, better efficiency, lower costs and better dependability. This textbook introduces students to creating microcontroller-based embedded systems featuring an ARM Cortex-M CPU core.

Embedded Systems Fundamentals With ARM CortexM Based Microcontrollers A Practical Approach 87

Chapter 1 introduces students to the concepts of MCU-based embedded systems, and how they differ from general-purpose computers. It then introduces the ARM Cortex-M0+ CPU, the Kinetis KL25Z MCU, and the low cost FRDM-KL25Z MCU development board.

Alex Dean's new textbook is a well-written starting point for students who have experience in electronics and are now moving into microcontroller based projects. It provides students of computer/electronics engineering with a clear understanding of how an embedded processor system works, and how to understand what is happening during software debugging sessions. With its coverage of commonly used microcontroller interfaces like ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and serial communication interfaces (e.g. UART, SPI, I2C), this book is also a valuable resource for hobbyists who are learning microcontroller applications. Joseph Yiu, Senior Embedded Technology Manager, ARM Ltd.

Alex has seen the real world of embedded system design as few other professors have, and gotten his hands dirty building real stuff. This book reflects that experience. It does an admirable job of covering the embedded computing design space, balancing the opposing forces of hardware vs. software, depth vs. breadth, and performance vs. constraints. The book uses the ARM Cortex-M0+ processor, which has a nice selection of peripherals while still giving the feel of a resource-constrained embedded system. Beyond that, the examples have a strong dose of Alex's experience working in industry, and deal with many of the practical issues that arise in real products. Professor Phil Koopman, Carnegie Mellon University

Alex Dean's Embedded Systems Fundamentals is a must-have book for every embedded engineer. It provides a seldom-seen balance among the disciplines of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, and Computer Science. It moves far beyond the academic instructional space to include many real-world examples, and thought-provoking exercises of essential embedded systems technologies and tools. The book also balances the many constraints present in the embedded product space including speed, cost, flexibility, and robustness. I intend to keep an extra copy at all times to pass on to my colleagues within Emerson. William J. Trosky, Vice President Emerson Software Center of Excellence, Emerson Electric, Inc.

Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems. In the context of the internet of things, microcontrollers are an economical and popular means of data collection, sensing and actuating the physical world as edge devices.

One book credits TI engineers Gary Boone and Michael Cochran with the successful creation of the first microcontroller in 1971. The result of their work was the TMS 1000, which became commercially available in 1974. It combined read-only memory, read/write memory, processor and clock on one chip and was targeted at embedded systems.[2]

Historically, the 8-bit segment has dominated the MCU market [..] 16-bit microcontrollers became the largest volume MCU category in 2011, overtaking 8-bit devices for the first time that year [..] IC Insights believes the makeup of the MCU market will undergo substantial changes in the next five years with 32-bit devices steadily grabbing a greater share of sales and unit volumes. By 2017, 32-bit MCUs are expected to account for 55% of microcontroller sales [..] In terms of unit volumes, 32-bit MCUs are expected account for 38% of microcontroller shipments in 2017, while 16-bit devices will represent 34% of the total, and 4-/8-bit designs are forecast to be 28% of units sold that year.The 32-bit MCU market is expected to grow rapidly due to increasing demand for higher levels of precision in embedded-processing systems and the growth in connectivity using the Internet. [..] In the next few years, complex 32-bit MCUs are expected to account for over 25% of the processing power in vehicles.

A microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor, memory and peripherals and can be used as an embedded system.[24] The majority of microcontrollers in use today are embedded in other machinery, such as automobiles, telephones, appliances, and peripherals for computer systems.

While some embedded systems are very sophisticated, many have minimal requirements for memory and program length, with no operating system, and low software complexity. Typical input and output devices include switches, relays, solenoids, LED's, small or custom liquid-crystal displays, radio frequency devices, and sensors for data such as temperature, humidity, light level etc. Embedded systems usually have no keyboard, screen, disks, printers, or other recognizable I/O devices of a personal computer, and may lack human interaction devices of any kind.

Many embedded systems need to read sensors that produce analog signals. This is the purpose of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Since processors are built to interpret and process digital data, i.e. 1s and 0s, they are not able to do anything with the analog signals that may be sent to it by a device. So the analog to digital converter is used to convert the incoming data into a form that the processor can recognize. A less common feature on some microcontrollers is a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) that allows the processor to output analog signals or voltage levels.

Microcontrollers were originally programmed only in assembly language, but various high-level programming languages, such as C, Python and JavaScript, are now also in common use to target microcontrollers and embedded systems.[27] Compilers for general purpose languages will typically have some restrictions as well as enhancements to better support the unique characteristics of microcontrollers. Some microcontrollers have environments to aid developing certain types of applications. Microcontroller vendors often make tools freely available to make it easier to adopt their hardware.

In contrast to general-purpose computers, microcontrollers used in embedded systems often seek to optimize interrupt latency over instruction throughput. Issues include both reducing the latency, and making it be more predictable (to support real-time control).

The scheduler in RTOS is designed to have a predictable pattern of task execution, which is why RTOS are often described as deterministic systems. This characteristic is especially important for embedded systems that often have real time requirements on the field, such as responding to an event within a strict period of time.

Azure RTOS is an embedded development suite offered by Microsoft, offering a small but powerful operating system on resource-constrained devices. Azure RTOS features a number of pre-integrated components, such as Azure RTOS NetX for TCP/IP protocols and Azure RTOS FileX for high performance filesystems. Coming from one of the biggest players in the market, you can expect Azure RTOS to feature predictably fast performance, robust security, and compliance with industry standards!

The motivation for selecting these models was to test the performance of the evaluation of fractional-order differential equations using platforms widely applied in industrial applications, equivalent to expensive DSP processors. Cortex-M microcontrollers usually do not reach the same computation power, often due to much lower CPU clock frequency (e.g., the TMS320C6678 DSP processor operates at 1.4 GHz). However, they have been equipped with numerous extensions for accelerating calculations, including Single Instruction, Multiple Data (SIMD) operations, optimized multiply-accumulate (MAC) and DSP instructions, direct memory access (DMA), and hardware floating-point units (FPU). A significant advantage is the availability of basic peripherals, memories, communication interfaces, and power regulators. This offers a low-cost alternative to multi-core systems, with each core dedicated to specific tasks (e.g., primary DSP core to signal processing tasks and secondary core to an operating system, communication with external peripherals and power management). 350c69d7ab


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